CHAPTER  I

 

  1. A.                     Background

Suggestopedia (USA English) or Suggestopaedia (UK English) is a teaching method developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov. It is used in different fields, but mostly in the field of foreign language learning. Lozanov has claimed that by using this method a teacher’s students can learn a language approximately three to five times as quickly as through conventional teaching methods

The definition based on the oxford learner’s Pocket Dictionary Fourt Edition : “Suggest is put forward idea or plan of consideration.”

Suggestopedia has been called a “pseudo-science” [1]. It strongly depends on the trust that students develop towards the method by simply believing that it works.

The theory applied positive suggestion in teaching when it was developed in the 1970s. However, as the method improved, it has focused more on “desuggestive learning” and now is often called “desuggestopedia.” [2] Suggestopedia is a portmanteau of the words “suggestion” and “pedagogy”. A common misconception is to link “suggestion” to “hypnosis”. However, Lozanov intended it in the sense of offering or proposing, emphasising student choice.

Suggestopedia has been used in a number of Bulgarian schools for the teaching a variety of subject even tough the principle area of concerns in teaching foreign languages. The proponents of the method claim that their method works equally well whether or not language learners spend time on outside study, and gifted and ungifted language learners study the target language succesfully.lozanov (cited in Richard and Rodgers,1986:142 and 2001) claims that memorization in learning by the suggestopedic method will be accalarated 25 times over that in learning by conventional methods. His method can be used to teach about adults and children.

The method considers the function of analitical, linear left hemisphere of the brain and that of intuitive, spatially responsive right hemisphere in a relaxed way which results in accelerated and highly motivated learning.

  1. B.                 Problem formulation
    1. What the principles of the suggestopedia?
    2. What the basic assumption about language?
    3. How the procedure of suggestopedia?
    4. C.                Purpose
      1. For the student
        1. Can make the student interest to study.
        2. Makes the comfortable condition in study.
        3. For the teacher
          1. Use suggestopedia as a method in the class
          2. Motivate the student to study well.

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

  1. PRINSCIPLES OF SUGGESTOPEDIA

The principle of the method are derivied from observation based on control experiments. The first prinsciple is that people are able to learn at rates many times greater that what we commonly assume to be the limits of human performance. The second principles is that learning is global; it involves the entire person. The third principle is that people learn either consciously or unconsciously or both, either rationally or irrationally, or both.

Suggestion can work well when the learners remove the prior authomatic pattern and open the access to great potential of mental reserve. Without de-suggesting (removing) the pattern, it is hard for suggestion to function. The learners must be assured that they have anti-suggestive barrier. And they have to remove them in order to open the access of the suggestion. The three anti suggestive barriers are critical logical, intuitive- affective, and ethical. The first anti suggestive barrier is critical anti suggestive barrier. This barrier rejects suggestion through reasoning. If the learners think that it is impossible to learn a foreign language as Lozanov believes, the possibility to be successful learners is very slim. This barrier is the conscious critical thinking. The second barrier is intuitive affective barrier. This seems to be emotional barrier. This barrier is believed to come from anything that may produce of a feeling of lack confidence or insecurity. If the learners feel that they will loose their confidence or self esteem, they are likely not to reach the success in learning. The third barrier is ethicall barrier. The learners will reject everything that is not in harmony with the ethical sense they have.

There are two basic kinds of suggestion in Lozanov method: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion is mean to dealt with conscious processes. The example of it is all activities that occur in direct learning teaching interaction. The indirect suggestion dealt with unconscious processes, they are communication factors outside our conscious awareness such as voice, tone, facial expression, body posture and movement, speech, tempo, rhythm, accent etc. another factor in language learning that can function as indirect suggestion is classroom arrangement, such as décor, lighting, nice level, etc. all kinds of suggestion can reinforce or hinder the processes of language learning. The inputs on these two planes should support each other, rather cancelling each other.

Some principles of this method can be known as follow :

  1. Learning is facilitated. In a relaxed, comfortable environment.
  2. The teacher attempts to increase her student confidence that they will be successful learners. The more confidence the student feel, the better they will learn.
  3. Assuming a new identity enhances students feeling of security and a loose them to be more open. They feel less inhibited since their performance is really that of different person.
  4. The teacher should present and explain the grammar and vocabulary but not dwell on them.
  5. Dramatization is particularly valuable, playfully activating the material. Fantasy reduces barriers to learning.
  6. Music and movement reinforce the linguistic material. It is desirable that student achieve a state of “infantilization” – having a childlike attitude – so that they will be more open to learning. If they trust the teacher, they will reach this state more easily.
  7. In an atmosphere of play the conscious attention of the learners do not focus on linguistic form, but rather on using the language. Learning can be fun.

B.        PROCEDURS OF SUGGESTOPEDIA

Even though the suggestopedia is a method in general teaching, lozanov suggest three principles of the suggestopedic lesson in foreign language: the pre-session phase, the session phase and the post session phase.

The pre-session phase takes about 15 to 20 minutes. In this phase the student are made familiar with the key topics of the new materials for the first time. The organization of this “first encounter” is of particular imprtance in creating a positive mind set for reserve capacities. A great part of the material is memorized during this phase. The teacher explains the the new material very briefly, dechiphers the tematic dialogue in a few supporting points. In dong this, he must suggest through his behaviour that the assimilation has begun and all is pleasant and easy. Already during the deciphering, which is stage of giving the primary information, the following stages should be noted: fixation, reproduction, and new creative production.

The session phase comprises the session itself, which has already been described above. It lasts for 45 minutes, and with it the day’s lesson always come to an end. The post-session phase is  devoted to various elaborations of the materials to activate its assimilation.

The elaborations comprise reading and translation of the text, songs, games, and extra text (a monologue), retelling, and conversation on given themes. All this merges into role-playing should take place only when the students themselves express the wish to do it. The activation must be spontaneous. Thus the teaching and learning acquires sense and meaning (lozanov, 1982: 158).

The prionciples suggested in the suggestopedic can be developed in wide range of techniques. The following is prosedure of suggestopedia in teaching a foreign language introduced by Larsen-freeman (1986) and supported by the writer’s experience when Dorothy taugh a foreign language to show how the method words at the school for international training, Brattleboro, Vermont, USA, in 1987.

The students are seated in cushioned armchairs that are arranged in a cemicircle facing the front of the room. The lighting is dim. There is soft music playing. There are several posters on the wall. Most of them are travel posters. Some posters contain grammatical information.

The teacher greets in the target language (German) tells them in English in that they ar about to begin a new and exciting experience in language learning.

With the music playing the teacher invites to close their eyes and to become aware of their breathing. She says almost in whisper “In, out, in , out”. She then invites the students to take an imaginary trip with her. She tells them that they are going to Germany. She will be their guide. She discribes the air plane flight, what they will see when they first land and how they will feel in the airport. She tells them to listen to the German all around them to feelm themselves replying fluently in german to questions posed to them by the customs and immigration officials. “Now” she says “slowly” bring your awareness back to this room. its sounds and its smells. When you are ready, open your eyes. Welcome to German “(larsen-Freeman, 1986: 72-77 and 2001).

The introduction process in teaching a foreign language mentioned above seems ton refer to the nonconcious an nonrational plane. The techer attempts to suggest psychological barriers the learners bring in their mind by providing relaxed and comfortable learning environment. This technique is believed to have power  to penetrate the unconciousness of the learners the teacher also assuresthe learners that they will be successful learners; the teacher speaks in an authoritative way. This technique is meant to suggest childlike interaction. This state is called infantilitation (stevick, 1976: 156). This method uses a wide variety of means to help the students to achive the childlike openness, plasticity and creativity.

Next, the teacher tells that during the course the students will create an imaginary biography about the life of their new identity. But for now, she says, they should just choose a profession to go with the new name. using pantomime to help the stthe student understand, the teacher acts out various occupations, such as pilot, singer carpenter, and artist. The students choose what they want to be.

The teacher greets each student use his new name and ask him a few questions in German about his new occupation. Through her actoins the students understand the meaning and reply yes or no in German. She than teaches a short German dialog in which two people greet each other an inquire each other does for a living. After practicing the dialogue with the group and individual students, the teacher tells the class to pretend that they are each at a party where they don’t know anyone. The student stands up and walk around the room, greeting one another (Larsen-Freeman, 1986; 74 and 200).

By having new identity, the learners feel more secure because they can hide their real life. They can be open in expressing whatever they want since they have no secret in communication; they are pretending so that whatever they say is not their real life. By having a party, they also have fun in learning a foreign language. Lots of play, fun, imagination, and humor are characteristics of the optimal learning environment (Dorothy, 1981: 30).  The idea of role playing with new identity is to bypass the left brain and permits in the right brain to intake rthe target language. This can relax the resistance to language acquisition that comes from the critical thinking of the left hemisphere. It is believed that the left hamisphere constantly advises us that we should stick to what we know (Ashers, 1998: 228-229).

Next, she distributes a handout that contains a lenghty dialog. She has the student turn the page. In the left is German dialog and in the right is the english translation. The handout also contains vocabulary items and explanation about the grammar that the students will encounter in the dialog. The teacher reads the dialog and the llearner listen to the reading. The students are allowed to read the translation on the left of the page. The class continues with the practice of communicating in the target of language in the target language by singing German songs or other games.

Lozanov also discribes the main part of a suggestopedia language class. This is the last part of the three distinct parts in language class (cited in Richards and Rodgers, 1986: 151).

At the beginning of the session, all conversation stops for a minute or two, and the teacher listens to the music coming from a tape-recorder. Hev waits and listens to several passage in order to enter into the mood of the music and then begins to read or recite the new next, his voice modulated in harmony with the musical phrases. The students follow the text in their text books where each lesson is translated into the mother tongue. Between he first and second part of the concert, there are several minutes of solemn silence. in some cases, even longer pauses can be given to permit the student to stir a little. Before the beginning of the second part of the concert, there are several minutes of silence and some phrases of the music are heard before the teacher begin to read the text. Now the students close the textbook and listen to the teacher’s reading. At the end, the students silently leave the room. They are not told to do any homework on the lesson they  have just except for reading it cursorily once before going to bed and again before getting up in the morning.

CHAPTER III

CONCLUSION

Suggestopedia (USA English) or Suggestopaedia (UK English) is a teaching method developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov. It is used in different fields, but mostly in the field of foreign language learning. Lozanov has claimed that by using this method a teacher’s students can learn a language approximately three to five times as quickly as through conventional teaching methods

Some principles of suggestopedia :

  1. Learning is facilitated. In a relaxed, comfortable environment.
  2. The teacher attempts to increase her student confidence that they will be successful learners. The more confidence the student feel, the better they will learn.
  3. Assuming a new identity enhances students feeling of security and a loose them to be more open. They feel less inhibited since their performance is really that of different person.
  4. The teacher should present and explain the grammar and vocabulary but not dwell on them.
  5. Dramatization is particularly valuable, playfully activating the material. Fantasy reduces barriers to learning.
  6. Music and movement reinforce the linguistic material. It is desirable that student achieve a state of “infantilization” – having a childlike attitude – so that they will be more open to learning. If they trust the teacher, they will reach this state more easily.
  7. In an atmosphere of play the conscious attention of the learners do not focus on linguistic form, but rather on using the language. Learning can be fun.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Setyadi Bambang. 2006.Teaching English As Foreign Language.Yogyakarta.Graha Ilmu.

Freeman Diane Larsen.1986.Techniques And Principles In Language Teaching. New York. Oxford Exprees.

Brown Dougles. 2001. Teaching By Principles: An Interactive Approach To Language Pedagogy, Second Edition. New York. Longman.